Quakers soon became concerned about slavery. The notion of ‘that of God in everyone’ led naturally to equality. One human being owning another is totally incompatible with this.
A fundamental belief in the equality of all people has led Quakers to campaign actively against racism in many parts of the world.
Anti-Slavery in Britain
Quakers were prominent in the abolition of the slave trade and in the abolition of slavery throughout the British Empire. Today many Quakers work actively against modern forms of slavery.
Anti-Slavery in North America
In 1688 Quakers in Philadelphia stated that slavery was immoral. Eliminating it among Quakers was the first priority, followed by full abolition, finally achieved in 1865. Today many Quakers work actively against modern forms of slavery.
Anti-Slavery in the modern world
Historic slavery was officially abolished in the 19th century. In the 20th century Quakers were part of a growing awareness of modern forms of slavery, and began to campaign against these.
Anti-Slavery: Pioneering Aspects of Modern Campaigning
The historic anti-slavery campaigners pioneered some of the key features of modern campaigning - logos, produce boycotts, direct action, and much else.
Anti-Slavery: Raising the Moral Issue
Many Quakers wrote well-informed and moving books and articles about the evils of slavery, and its immorality, and many others spoke movingly about it.
Anti-Slavery: Some Quaker Leaders
Quakers contributed to the abolition of slavery in many ways - organisational, financial, academic and activist. Here are some outstanding examples. The work still continues, as slavery persists in modern forms.
Eliminating Slavery amongst Quakers
In the early days of Quakerism, there were Quaker slave owners and slave traders. As the unacceptability of slavery became clearer, the first step for Quakers was to root it out within their own communities.
Quaker organisation and Anti-Slavery campaigning
Quakers in Britain quickly developed a strong network that linked meetings together. This network was a great source of strength in anti-slavery campaigning.
(1786 -1862) was an abolitionist and a feminist. She was impatient with the slow progress towards abolition in Britain, and argued vehemently against compensation for slave owners. She also campaigned strongly for votes for women.
(1713-1784) was an educational reformer and committed teacher who did much for the beginning of free education for African Americans. He argued strongly against slavery, and for racial equality.
(1681-1759) was an important campaigner for abolition amongst the Quaker community in 18th century Philadelphia. His methods were often dramatic 'action statements' such as standing barefoot in the snow to illustrate the conditions under which slaves lived.
Boycotting Goods Produced by Slaves
Quakers were at the forefront of the movement to boycott goods produced by slave labour. In Britain they were active in the boycott of sugar from the West Indies. The "Free Produce Movement" was prominent in America.
Britain, Ireland and America in C17,and early Quakerism
This was a time of great political, religious, and social change in Britain and Ireland. British colonisation of North America and the Caribbean took off, and the transatlantic slave trade with it. This was the context in which Quakerism began.
(1729 - 1809) and his brother John opposed slavery. When they received land in Jamaica in payment of a debt, 32 slaves were included in the payment. They soon freed them.
(1769-1831) was influential both in Britain and in the United States in the campaign for the Abolition of Slavery, particularly for her work on the boycott of West Indian sugar, because it was produced by slaves. She was also a feminist.
Friends Industrial Mission Zanzibar
In 1890 Britain took over Zanzibar, where slavery was widespread. Quakers established an industrial mission on Pemba Island. They are credited with liberating about 1000 slaves, and providing education and employment.
(1720-1772) John Woolman is thought by many to be the central figure of 18th Century Quaker faith and social reform. His ministry still speaks to us today through his journal and other writings. He was very influential in the abolitionist movement in America.
(1793-1859) was a British activist and philanthropist in Birmingham. He worked for peace, abolition of slavery, education and temperance. He helped revive the Adult School Movement.
(1798-1877) was an abolitionist, and a businessman. He was deeply involved in the Underground Railroad in Indiana and Ohio and his home was often called 'Grand Central Station' of the Railroad. Many escaping slaves passed through his care.
(1793-1880) was a prominent abolitionist and advocate of rights for women. She sheltered many runaway slaves and boycotted items produced by slave labour. She founded the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society and in 1848 co-organised the first women's rights convention in the US.
Quakers in Germany 1657–1918
Quaker missionaries first came to Germany in 1657. Later many German Quakers went to Pennsylvania, and some were early antislavery campaigners. Quakerism also persisted in Germany itself.
Quakers in Jamaica and Barbados
The first phase was bound up with Britain, colonial America, early Quaker mission work, and the slave trade. But by 1750, there were few Caribbean Quakers left. The second phase was originated in 1881 by missionaries from the US.
The Quaker Five in the 1787 national Abolition Committee
Five Quaker businessmen were prominent in this 12-member committee. Four were British and one was from Pennsylvania.
(1760-1846) although not a Quaker, was greatly influenced by them in his work for the abolition of the slave trade. He was a key member of the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.
(1789-1871) was an abolitionist who helped 2,700 runaway slaves to reach to freedom. He worked on the underground railroad for forty years and was known at the "station master" at Wilmington, Delaware.
(c1670-1742) was an early Quaker missionary. He travelled in Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany and colonial North America, and worked for William Penn in Pennsylvania for several years. He had an abiding love of trees and brought many specimens back from his travels.
This was an informal network of secret routes and safe houses used by fugitive American slaves on their journey north to “Free States” or Canada. It spanned twenty-nine states, as well as Canada, Mexico and the Caribbean. Quakers played an active part in it, along with many others.
(1770-1843) was an eminent pharmacist, and built his Allen and Hanbury business into a large concern. He was a generous philanthropist and activist, supporting many causes such as anti-slavery, poverty, emergency relief, and education. He travelled extensively throughout Europe and Russia, in connection with these.